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Topics in Science & Technology
Topics in Science and Technology (CP, Grade 9)
The Topics in Science and Technology class studies Engineering Design, Construction Technologies, Energy and Power Technologies of Fluid Systems, Thermal Systems, and Electrical Systems as well as Communication Technologies and Manufacturing Technologies.
All students enrolled in this class will take the STE MCAS in June of their freshman year.
1. Engineering Design
Central Concepts: Engineering design involves practical problem solving, research, development, and invention/innovation, and requires designing, drawing, building, testing, and redesigning. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge.
1.1 Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process: identify the problem, research the problem, develop possible solutions, select the best possible solution(s), construct prototypes and/or models, test and evaluate, communicate the solutions, and redesign.
1.2 Understand that the engineering design process is used in the solution of problems and the advancement of society. Identify examples of technologies, objects, and processes that have been modified to advance society, and explain why and how they were modified.
1.3 Produce and analyze multi-view drawings (orthographic projections) and pictorial drawings (isometric, oblique, perspective), using various techniques.
1.4 Interpret and apply scale and proportion to orthographic projections and pictorial drawings (e.g., ¼” = 1’0″, 1 cm = 1 m).
1.5 Interpret plans, diagrams, and working drawings in the construction of prototypes or models.
2. Construction Technologies
Central Concepts: The construction process is a series of actions taken to build a structure, including preparing a site, setting a foundation, erecting a structure, installing utilities, and finishing a site. Various materials, processes, and systems are used to build structures. Students should demonstrate and apply the concepts of construction technology through building and constructing either full-size models or scale models using various materials commonly used in construction. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge in construction technology.
2.1 Identify and explain the engineering properties of materials used in structures (e.g., elasticity, plasticity, R value, density, strength).
2.2 Distinguish among tension, compression, shear, and torsion, and explain how they relate to the selection of materials in structures.
2.3 Explain Bernoulli’s principle and its effect on structures such as buildings and bridges.
2.4 Calculate the resultant force(s) for a combination of live loads and dead loads.
2.5 Identify and demonstrate the safe and proper use of common hand tools, power tools, and measurement devices used in construction.
2.6 Recognize the purposes of zoning laws and building codes in the design and use of structures.
3. Energy and Power Technologies—Fluid Systems
Central Concepts: Fluid systems are made up of liquids or gases and allow force to be transferred from one location to another. They can also provide water, gas, and/or oil, and/or remove waste. They can be moving or stationary and have associated pressures and velocities. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge in a fluid system.
3.1 Explain the basic differences between open fluid systems (e.g., irrigation, forced hot air system, air compressors) and closed fluid systems (e.g., forced hot water system, hydraulic brakes).
3.2 Explain the differences and similarities between hydraulic and pneumatic systems, and explain how each relates to manufacturing and transportation systems.
3.3 Calculate and describe the ability of a hydraulic system to multiply distance, multiply force, and effect directional change.
3.4 Recognize that the velocity of a liquid moving in a pipe varies inversely with changes in the cross-sectional area of the pipe.
3.5 Identify and explain sources of resistance (e.g., 45º elbow, 90º elbow, changes in diameter) for water moving through a pipe.
4. Energy and Power Technologies—Thermal Systems
Central Concepts: Thermal systems involve transfer of energy through conduction, convection, and radiation, and are used to control the environment. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge in a thermal system.
4.1 Differentiate among conduction, convection, and radiation in a thermal system (e.g., heating and cooling a house, cooking).
4.2 Give examples of how conduction, convection, and radiation are considered in the selection of materials for buildings and in the design of a heating system.
4.3 Explain how environmental conditions such as wind, solar angle, and temperature influence the design of buildings.
4.4 Identify and explain alternatives to nonrenewable energies (e.g., wind and solar energy conversion systems).
5. Energy and Power Technologies—Electrical Systems
Central Concepts: Electrical systems generate, transfer, and distribute electricity. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge in an electrical system.
5.1 Explain how to measure and calculate voltage, current, resistance, and power consumption in a series circuit and in a parallel circuit. Identify the instruments used to measure voltage, current, power consumption, and resistance.
5.2 Identify and explain the components of a circuit, including sources, conductors, circuit breakers, fuses, controllers, and loads. Examples of some controllers are switches, relays, diodes, and variable resistors.
5.3 Explain the relationships among voltage, current, and resistance in a simple circuit, using Ohm’s law.
5.4 Recognize that resistance is affected by external factors (e.g., temperature).
5.5 Compare and contrast alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC), and give examples of each.
6. Communication Technologies
Central Concepts: Applying technical processes to exchange information can include symbols, measurements, icons, and graphic images. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge in a communication technology.
6.1 Explain how information travels through the following media: electrical wire, optical fiber, air, and space.
6.2 Differentiate between digital and analog signals. Describe how communication devices employ digital and analog technologies (e.g., computers,
6.3 Explain how the various components (source, encoder, transmitter, receiver, decoder, destination, storage, and retrieval) and processes of a communication system function.
6.4 Identify and explain the applications of laser and fiber optic technologies (e.g., telephone systems, cable television, photography).
6.5 Explain the application of electromagnetic signals in fiber optic technologies, including critical angle and total internal reflection.
7. Manufacturing Technologies
Central Concepts: Manufacturing processes can be classified into six groups: casting/molding, forming, separating, conditioning, assembling, and finishing. Students should demonstrate the ability to use the engineering design process to solve a problem or meet a challenge in a manufacturing technology.
7.1 Describe the manufacturing processes of casting and molding, forming, separating, conditioning, assembling, and finishing.
7.2 Identify the criteria necessary to select safe tools and procedures for a manufacturing process (e.g., properties of materials, required tolerances, end-uses).
7.3 Describe the advantages of using robotics in the automation of manufacturing processes (e.g., increased production, improved quality, safety).